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Immune Support

 

Vitamin D canine / feline

For the quantitative determination of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Calcifediol), both D3 and D2

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Clinical Background

Expanding models of vitamin D (VitD) look to its impact beyond bone support. VitD is now recognized for its role in gene regulation and the maintenance of cellular health. There is a growing body of evidence that low stores of VitD are associated with a wide range of diseases in dogs and cats.

Unlike humans, dogs and cats do not produce VitD from sunlight; their sole source of VitD comes from their diet. Recent work has demonstrated that VitD blood levels in most dogs and cats are insufficient, warranting supplementation.

 

VitD diagram

 

 

 

Methodology
 Chemiluminescent Immunoassay 
Units (Range)  ng/mL (0.5-150)
Sample Requirements  Serum≥1mL; SST tube / separate & freeze within 45 min
Interferences  Gross hemolysis / Gross lipemia
Stability  Room temp: 24 hour / 4 °C: 3 days / -20 °C: 1 year

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VitD caine header
     

VitD feline header

 

Vitamin D Sufficiency Important for Cellular Health

Vitamin D is not a simple vitamin but the precursor to the active hormone 1,25VitD. Well understood for its role in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is recognized for its role in gene regulation and the maintenance of cellular health. VitD diagram

Many tissues have vitamin D receptors and will locally convert 25VitD to 1,25VitD. Low stores of vitamin D are associated with a wide range of diseases such as cancer, heart disease, infection, and kidney disease.

Unlike humans, dogs and cats do not produce vitamin D from sunlight; their sole source of vitamin D comes from their diet. Recent studies have shown that vitamin D varies significantly by commercial pet food manufacturer. Further, intestinal absorption varies significantly from dog to dog, and by intact status.

Expanding models of vitamin D have generated new terminology of "Deficiency", "Insufficiency", and "Sufficiency" to define the protective effect that increasing stores of vitamin D have against disease.

Testing for 25(OH)D, the primary store of vitamin D, is your best means to objectively measure this important analyte. When found inadequate, dietary supplementation is warranted.

 

VitD food levels

 

 

Increased Risk for Disease

VitD assoc cancer

Cancer is an immune dysfunction disease. Aberrations to the cell's genes cause uncontrolled growth, and a dysfunction to the immune process prevents the destruction of the aberrant cells. Inflammation, both a precursor and a propagator of cancer genesis is, in part, controlled by vitamin D.

Studies have shown that with adequate stores of vitamin D, inflammation is reduced. Further, low stores of vitamin D are associated with a wide range of benign and malignant diseases.

There is a growing body of evidence that low stores of vitamin D are associated with a wide range of diseases in dogs and cats: 

Cancer(2,5,7,10,11,12)
Infection(8)
Heart Disease(9)
Hyperparathyroidism(2)
Inflammatory bowel disease(4,11)
Feline tooth resorption(3)
Renal disease(1,2)
 

 

 

 

 

 

  

INCASE report

 

 

VitD canine logo 

 

 

 VitD feline logo

 

 

 

The Right Tests for the Right DecisionSM

 

 

 

 

Citations:

  1. Gerber B, et al. Serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholacalciferol in clinically normal dogs and dogs with acute and chronic renal failure. Am J Vet Res, 2003
  2. Gerber B, et al. Serum levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in dogs with hypercalcaemia. Vet Res Commun, 2004
  3. Girard N, et al. Tooth resorption and vitamin D3 status in cats fed premium dry diets. Journal Veterinary Dentistry 2010
  4. Gow AG, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease and hypoalbuminaemia. J Small Anim Pract, 2011
  5. Wakshlag JJ, et al. Cross-sectional study to investigate the association between vitamin D status and cutaneous mast cell tumours in Labrador retrievers. Br J Nutr, 2011
  6. Selting K, et al. Diet and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in dogs. VCS poster, 2012
  7. Rosa CT, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in dogs with spirocercosis. J Vet Intern Med, 2013
  8. Lalor SM, et al. Domesticated cats with active mycobacteria infections have low serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 2012
  9. Kraus MS, et al. Relation of vitamin D status to congestive heart failure and cardiovascular events in dogs. J Vet Intern Med, 2013
  10. Husbands B. Low stores of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and its association with cancer in dogs. VCS presentation, 2013
  11. Lalor S, et al. Cats with inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal small cell lymphoma have low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Vet Intern Med, 2014
  12. Selting K, et al. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in dogs - correlation with health and cancer risk. Vet Comp Onco, 2014

 

 

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