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The Effect of Vitamin D in Chronic Enteropathy

Background The digestive tract is responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the elimination of waste; hence with chronic enteropathies (CE) and especially protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) these diseases can severely impact a patient’s health and may even result in death.  Studies in companion animals have shown that patients with CE and PLE have low stores […] Read more »

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What’s the deal with Magnesium?

It’s clear magnesium (Mg) is important – it’s a cofactor to over 600 enzymatic processes within the body, and the second most abundant intracellular cation.  Mg is required for DNA, RNA, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism through its involvement in cell receptor processes. Receptor DysfunctionEvery receptor needs Mg to function.  It is involved in the […] Read more »

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B12 and VitD Insufficiency

Cobalamin (B12) and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25D) are dietary derived in both cats and dogs.  Studies have shown 25D insufficiency to be a major problem in both species and worsen with age (1,2).  B12 malabsorption is strongly associated with both chronic enteropathies (IBD) and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) (3,4).  But is there a relationship between the two? […] Read more »

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Cobalamin and Folate Deficiencies in Cats and Dogs

It is common practice to utilize the term “B12/folate” as if it were one, which makes sense when looking at their biological pathways. Both are required for the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. However when discussing sources and deficiencies, they are very different. Whereas the opportunities for cobalamin deficiency are numerous, folate deficiencies are far less common. […] Read more »

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Oral B12 supplementation has been shown effective.

Cobalamin (B12) deficiency is frequently encountered in dogs and cats with chronic enteropathies (CE) and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI).  B12 metabolism follows a complex array of carriers to be effectively absorbed which can be negatively impacted by intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis.  In human patients oral supplementation is often utilized, while repeated parenteral injections is often […] Read more »

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The Complexities of B12 Complexes

Cobalamin (B12) metabolism requires many complex pathways, in which a breakdown of any could lead to B12 deficiency.  In a system that has many points for breakdown, having adequate B12 begins with a quality food source.  Like vitamin D, animal protein is the primary source of B12 – a concern with vegan diets. Provided there is […] Read more »

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Comparison of Oral and Parenteral Cobalamin Supplementation in Dogs

It is well documented that cats and dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE), intestinal lymphoma, or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are often cobalamin (B12) deficient (1,2). Problems with intrinsic factor binding to ileal receptors in the diseased tissue leads to B12 deficiency. Current supplementation protocol calls for repeated parenteral injections of hydroxycobalamin over 6 weeks bypassing the diseased tissue. […] Read more »

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Vitamin D and Homemade Diets

There is a growing trend for pet-owners to avoid commercial pet food in favor of a more natural homemade diet. When planning homemade diets, the balance of micronutrients, including vitamin D, should be emphasized.   VDI, in conjunction with Tufts University and the University of Missouri, conducted a study looking at VitD absorption in 320 […] Read more »

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Vitamin D & Obesity – Technical Brief

Obesity impacts vitamin D equilibrium.  Please review the tech brief below on how it applies to your Test & Treat patients. Contact VDI with any questions. Background: Vitamin D undergoes a series of enzymatic reactions ultimately becoming the active hormone calcitriol.  However, since vitamin D is fat soluble, it is readily taken up within the adipose tissue.  The adipose […] Read more »

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Vitamin D deficiency is increasingly linked to adverse outcomes

Cancer It has been reported that dogs and cats with lymphoma (2,11), mast cell tumors (5), hemangiosarcoma, carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and other cancers (10,11,12) all have 25vitD values below 40ng/mL.  The relative risk of having cancer increases to almost 4x when 25vitD values are below 40ng/mL. Chronic Enteropathy (IBD) Disease severity and the incidence of chronic […] Read more »