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Protein-Losing Syndrome and Vitamin D

Background Protein-losing syndromes, specifically protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), are disease conditions when albumin and other protein-rich materials leak into the intestinal cavity or urine.  Left untreated, there is a high mortality.  Both PLE and PLN involve significant inflammation which is a part of the pathogenesis and treatment often includes the use of […] Read more »

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The Effect of Vitamin D in Chronic Enteropathy

Background The digestive tract is responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the elimination of waste; hence with chronic enteropathies (CE) and especially protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) these diseases can severely impact a patient’s health and may even result in death.  Studies in companion animals have shown that patients with CE and PLE have low stores […] Read more »

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Vitamin D and Feline Cardiomyopathy

Background Many tissues, including the heart, have vitamin D receptors that regulate gene transcription and expression including the renin-angiotensin system, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction.  In 2013, a canine study showed that 25vitD levels were low with CHF and related to prognosis (1).  And in 2015, another study showed that 25vitD levels corresponded to disease […] Read more »

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Vitamin D Supplements may have variable potency

While many dietary vitamins are easily cleared or do not threaten toxicity in high concentrations, Vitamin D stands apart.  Too little, and sufficiency is not attained; too much and the threat of toxicity triggers close patient management.  Multiple factors impact the vitamin D status, which makes simple weight-based dosing ineffective. To achieve sufficiency, VDI has […] Read more »

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B12 and VitD Insufficiency

Cobalamin (B12) and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25D) are dietary derived in both cats and dogs.  Studies have shown 25D insufficiency to be a major problem in both species and worsen with age (1,2).  B12 malabsorption is strongly associated with both chronic enteropathies (IBD) and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) (3,4).  But is there a relationship between the two? […] Read more »

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Vitamin D and Homemade Diets

There is a growing trend for pet-owners to avoid commercial pet food in favor of a more natural homemade diet. When planning homemade diets, the balance of micronutrients, including vitamin D, should be emphasized.   VDI, in conjunction with Tufts University and the University of Missouri, conducted a study looking at VitD absorption in 320 […] Read more »

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Calcitriol (activated Vitamin D) Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines

In a series of studies (1-3) from the University of Missouri, the activated form of vitamin D (calcitriol) was shown to reduce TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokine) and increase IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine). These in-vitro studies examined the effect calcitriol had on cultured canine leukocytes when exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS).  Leukocytes possess the vitamin D receptor (VDR) along […] Read more »

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Vitamin D & Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an auto-immune disorder, is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation and can advance to protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), an often fatal disease.  Dogs with IBD are often low in vitamin D stores (25VitD) due to inappetence and/or impaired absorption. Studies (1,2) have found a correlation between the level of 25VitD and the canine […] Read more »

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Vitamin D & Obesity – Technical Brief

Obesity impacts vitamin D equilibrium.  Please review the tech brief below on how it applies to your Test & Treat patients. Contact VDI with any questions. Background: Vitamin D undergoes a series of enzymatic reactions ultimately becoming the active hormone calcitriol.  However, since vitamin D is fat soluble, it is readily taken up within the adipose tissue.  The adipose […] Read more »

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Vitamin D deficiency is increasingly linked to adverse outcomes

Cancer It has been reported that dogs and cats with lymphoma (2,11), mast cell tumors (5), hemangiosarcoma, carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and other cancers (10,11,12) all have 25vitD values below 40ng/mL.  The relative risk of having cancer increases to almost 4x when 25vitD values are below 40ng/mL. Chronic Enteropathy (IBD) Disease severity and the incidence of chronic […] Read more »