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The Effect of Vitamin D in Chronic Enteropathy

Background The digestive tract is responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the elimination of waste; hence with chronic enteropathies (CE) and especially protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) these diseases can severely impact a patient’s health and may even result in death.  Studies in companion animals have shown that patients with CE and PLE have low stores […] Read more »

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CRP/Albumin Ratio (CAR) – A disease severity index

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and albumin have long been used independently as markers for prognosis.  Patients with either high inflammation or low albumin have tended to have worse outcomes.  The use of the C-reactive protein/ albumin ratio (CAR) is growing in human medicine as a prognostic index for disease severity. With the growing use of CRP […] Read more »

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Feline GI Lymphoma Panel

Background:Differentiating GI Lymphoma from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) continues to be a challenge in many cats. When ultrasound is suggestive and biopsy is not an option, alternative pathways to diagnosis are needed. The VDI Cancer Panel is a tool, when used in conjunction with an ultrasound, that can help rule-in LSA in the suspected cat. […] Read more »

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Testing Joint Health with Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is a molecule that exists inside the joints in cats, dogs and humans. Its main purpose is to lubricate and prevent the bones in the joint from rubbing against each other, breaking down, and causing bone and ligament damage. As joints degrade, this molecule is leaked into the blood stream, where testing […] Read more »

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Integrating CRP into routine practice

In dogs, C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase protein produced in response to inflammation and the release of cytokines.   It has been shown to be an effective measure of general inflammation.  Inflammation is involved in both the initiation and propagation of many disease processes.  While non-specific, it is very sensitive to developing problems. […] Read more »

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Inflammation & Vaccination – Improve vaccine efficacy

Background Vaccinations activate the adaptive immune process to provide lasting immunity to disease.  Dogs and cats get vaccinated to a wide range of pathogens with the goal of high antibody titers and long duration of immunity (DOI).  While generally successful, there are times vaccinations FAIL, or fail to provide the desired DOI. Vaccination failures and low DOI […] Read more »

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Calcitriol (activated Vitamin D) Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines

In a series of studies (1-3) from the University of Missouri, the activated form of vitamin D (calcitriol) was shown to reduce TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokine) and increase IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine). These in-vitro studies examined the effect calcitriol had on cultured canine leukocytes when exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS).  Leukocytes possess the vitamin D receptor (VDR) along […] Read more »

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CRP & Cardiac Disease

CRP Is Elevated In Cardiac Disease Inflammation plays a key role in a wide variety of cardiac diseases.  In human medicine, the measurement of high-sensitivity CRP is used to predict the future development of heart disease (1,2). Similarly, an elevated inflammatory response (and hence CRP) is found in dogs.  Researchers have documented significant elevations of CRP in […] Read more »

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C-Reactive Protein & Infections

C-reactive protein (CRP), a general marker of the inflammatory response, correlates directly with both the severity and duration of the inflammatory stimulation.  One of the strongest responses is to an infection. Two recent publications demonstrate that CRP is useful to: Detect infections 6 days post-op Differentiate suppurative arthritis and osteoarthritis Detecting Post-Op Infections Reporting sensitivity/specificity […] Read more »

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CRP/Albumin Ration (CAR) as an outcome predictor in cancer patients

Background The C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) is quickly finding ground as an outcome predictor in cancer. In both human and veterinary medicine, cancer mortality or complications arising from cancer is of major concern. In human medicine the use of CAR has been studied and found to be predictive of poor outcomes in a wide range of cancers, […] Read more »