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Protein-Losing Syndrome and Vitamin D

Background Protein-losing syndromes, specifically protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), are disease conditions when albumin and other protein-rich materials leak into the intestinal cavity or urine.  Left untreated, there is a high mortality.  Both PLE and PLN involve significant inflammation which is a part of the pathogenesis and treatment often includes the use of […] Read more »

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The Effect of Vitamin D in Chronic Enteropathy

Background The digestive tract is responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the elimination of waste; hence with chronic enteropathies (CE) and especially protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) these diseases can severely impact a patient’s health and may even result in death.  Studies in companion animals have shown that patients with CE and PLE have low stores […] Read more »

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Transdermal Magnesium supplementation is effective

Background:Magnesium, an essential vitamin, is required for the proper & efficient function of over 600 biological pathways. Think of it like motor oil for an engine; Without proper magnesium levels, these pathways aren’t going to work at optimal efficiency. Testing magnesium levels in your patients is the first step, and when deficiency is identified, corrective […] Read more »

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The Test & Treat Solution

Health of a pet starts with the quality of food they eat. It’s why we so often look to diet for general wellness, and for the management of acutely ill animals. Nutrition serves a critical role in patient care, and improving diets often helps our pets live longer and healthier lives. Unfortunately, too many commercial […] Read more »

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Vitamin D Supplements may have variable potency

While many dietary vitamins are easily cleared or do not threaten toxicity in high concentrations, Vitamin D stands apart.  Too little, and sufficiency is not attained; too much and the threat of toxicity triggers close patient management.  Multiple factors impact the vitamin D status, which makes simple weight-based dosing ineffective. To achieve sufficiency, VDI has […] Read more »

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What’s the deal with Magnesium?

It’s clear magnesium (Mg) is important – it’s a cofactor to over 600 enzymatic processes within the body, and the second most abundant intracellular cation.  Mg is required for DNA, RNA, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism through its involvement in cell receptor processes. Receptor DysfunctionEvery receptor needs Mg to function.  It is involved in the […] Read more »

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B12 and VitD Insufficiency

Cobalamin (B12) and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25D) are dietary derived in both cats and dogs.  Studies have shown 25D insufficiency to be a major problem in both species and worsen with age (1,2).  B12 malabsorption is strongly associated with both chronic enteropathies (IBD) and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) (3,4).  But is there a relationship between the two? […] Read more »

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Cobalamin and Folate Deficiencies in Cats and Dogs

It is common practice to utilize the term “B12/folate” as if it were one, which makes sense when looking at their biological pathways. Both are required for the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. However when discussing sources and deficiencies, they are very different. Whereas the opportunities for cobalamin deficiency are numerous, folate deficiencies are far less common. […] Read more »

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Oral B12 supplementation has been shown effective.

Cobalamin (B12) deficiency is frequently encountered in dogs and cats with chronic enteropathies (CE) and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI).  B12 metabolism follows a complex array of carriers to be effectively absorbed which can be negatively impacted by intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis.  In human patients oral supplementation is often utilized, while repeated parenteral injections is often […] Read more »

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The Complexities of B12 Complexes

Cobalamin (B12) metabolism requires many complex pathways, in which a breakdown of any could lead to B12 deficiency.  In a system that has many points for breakdown, having adequate B12 begins with a quality food source.  Like vitamin D, animal protein is the primary source of B12 – a concern with vegan diets. Provided there is […] Read more »