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The Complexities of B12 Complexes

Cobalamin (B12) metabolism requires many complex pathways, in which a breakdown of any could lead to B12 deficiency.  In a system that has many points for breakdown, having adequate B12 begins with a quality food source.  Like vitamin D, animal protein is the primary source of B12 – a concern with vegan diets. Provided there is […] Read more »

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Comparison of Oral and Parenteral Cobalamin Supplementation in Dogs

It is well documented that cats and dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE), intestinal lymphoma, or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are often cobalamin (B12) deficient (1,2). Problems with intrinsic factor binding to ileal receptors in the diseased tissue leads to B12 deficiency. Current supplementation protocol calls for repeated parenteral injections of hydroxycobalamin over 6 weeks bypassing the diseased tissue. […] Read more »

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Vegan Pets: Are they getting their essential vitamins?

As humans we tend to humanize our pets, known as anthropomorphism.  Birthday parties, outfits, special treats, Americans are truly making their pets part of the family. Nutrition and the desire to provide high-quality food is a booming business and with a growing prevalence of pet owners moving to a meat-less diet due to health, environment, or […] Read more »

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Vitamin D and Homemade Diets

There is a growing trend for pet-owners to avoid commercial pet food in favor of a more natural homemade diet. When planning homemade diets, the balance of micronutrients, including vitamin D, should be emphasized.   VDI, in conjunction with Tufts University and the University of Missouri, conducted a study looking at VitD absorption in 320 […] Read more »

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Integrating CRP into routine practice

In dogs, C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase protein produced in response to inflammation and the release of cytokines.   It has been shown to be an effective measure of general inflammation.  Inflammation is involved in both the initiation and propagation of many disease processes.  While non-specific, it is very sensitive to developing problems. […] Read more »

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Inflammation & Vaccination – Improve vaccine efficacy

Background Vaccinations activate the adaptive immune process to provide lasting immunity to disease.  Dogs and cats get vaccinated to a wide range of pathogens with the goal of high antibody titers and long duration of immunity (DOI).  While generally successful, there are times vaccinations FAIL, or fail to provide the desired DOI. Vaccination failures and low DOI […] Read more »

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Calcitriol (activated Vitamin D) Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines

In a series of studies (1-3) from the University of Missouri, the activated form of vitamin D (calcitriol) was shown to reduce TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokine) and increase IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine). These in-vitro studies examined the effect calcitriol had on cultured canine leukocytes when exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS).  Leukocytes possess the vitamin D receptor (VDR) along […] Read more »

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CRP & Cardiac Disease

CRP Is Elevated In Cardiac Disease Inflammation plays a key role in a wide variety of cardiac diseases.  In human medicine, the measurement of high-sensitivity CRP is used to predict the future development of heart disease (1,2). Similarly, an elevated inflammatory response (and hence CRP) is found in dogs.  Researchers have documented significant elevations of CRP in […] Read more »

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C-Reactive Protein & Infections

C-reactive protein (CRP), a general marker of the inflammatory response, correlates directly with both the severity and duration of the inflammatory stimulation.  One of the strongest responses is to an infection. Two recent publications demonstrate that CRP is useful to: Detect infections 6 days post-op Differentiate suppurative arthritis and osteoarthritis Detecting Post-Op Infections Reporting sensitivity/specificity […] Read more »

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CRP/Albumin Ration (CAR) as an outcome predictor in cancer patients

Background The C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) is quickly finding ground as an outcome predictor in cancer. In both human and veterinary medicine, cancer mortality or complications arising from cancer is of major concern. In human medicine the use of CAR has been studied and found to be predictive of poor outcomes in a wide range of cancers, […] Read more »