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The Complexities of B12 Complexes

Cobalamin (B12) metabolism requires many complex pathways, in which a breakdown of any could lead to B12 deficiency.  In a system that has many points for breakdown, having adequate B12 begins with a quality food source.  Like vitamin D, animal protein is the primary source of B12 – a concern with vegan diets. Provided there is […] Read more »

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Comparison of Oral and Parenteral Cobalamin Supplementation in Dogs

It is well documented that cats and dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE), intestinal lymphoma, or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are often cobalamin (B12) deficient (1,2). Problems with intrinsic factor binding to ileal receptors in the diseased tissue leads to B12 deficiency. Current supplementation protocol calls for repeated parenteral injections of hydroxycobalamin over 6 weeks bypassing the diseased tissue. […] Read more »

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Vegan Pets: Are they getting their essential vitamins?

As humans we tend to humanize our pets, known as anthropomorphism.  Birthday parties, outfits, special treats, Americans are truly making their pets part of the family. Nutrition and the desire to provide high-quality food is a booming business and with a growing prevalence of pet owners moving to a meat-less diet due to health, environment, or […] Read more »

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Integrating CRP into routine practice

In dogs, C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase protein produced in response to inflammation and the release of cytokines.   It has been shown to be an effective measure of general inflammation.  Inflammation is involved in both the initiation and propagation of many disease processes.  While non-specific, it is very sensitive to developing problems. […] Read more »

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Inflammation & Vaccination – Improve vaccine efficacy

Background Vaccinations activate the adaptive immune process to provide lasting immunity to disease.  Dogs and cats get vaccinated to a wide range of pathogens with the goal of high antibody titers and long duration of immunity (DOI).  While generally successful, there are times vaccinations FAIL, or fail to provide the desired DOI. Vaccination failures and low DOI […] Read more »

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Vitamin D & Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an auto-immune disorder, is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation and can advance to protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), an often fatal disease.  Dogs with IBD are often low in vitamin D stores (25VitD) due to inappetence and/or impaired absorption. Studies (1,2) have found a correlation between the level of 25VitD and the canine […] Read more »

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Vitamin D & Obesity – Technical Brief

Obesity impacts vitamin D equilibrium.  Please review the tech brief below on how it applies to your Test & Treat patients. Contact VDI with any questions. Background: Vitamin D undergoes a series of enzymatic reactions ultimately becoming the active hormone calcitriol.  However, since vitamin D is fat soluble, it is readily taken up within the adipose tissue.  The adipose […] Read more »

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Vitamin D deficiency is increasingly linked to adverse outcomes

Cancer It has been reported that dogs and cats with lymphoma (2,11), mast cell tumors (5), hemangiosarcoma, carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and other cancers (10,11,12) all have 25vitD values below 40ng/mL.  The relative risk of having cancer increases to almost 4x when 25vitD values are below 40ng/mL. Chronic Enteropathy (IBD) Disease severity and the incidence of chronic […] Read more »

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Food Quality is Vital for reaching Vitamin D Sufficiency

The term vitamin D has become a catch-all for three different forms of vitamin D: D3, 25(OH)D3, and 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol), as well as the 24-hydroxylated components.  The routinely measured and primary store of vitamin D is 25(OH)D3. Vitamin D Metabolism In a dog or cats’ diet, the primary available format is both D3 and 25(OH)D3.  While commercial food […] Read more »

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Vitamin D Intoxication

Over the years, and just recently, there have been food recalls concerning excess vitamin D in pet food and reported ‘vitamin D intoxication’. Pets eating these foods and exhibiting signs of hypercalcemia are assumed to have vitamin D intoxication. Background: Vitamin D exists as three different forms: Vitamin D3  25-hydroxy-vitaminD (25(OH)D)  1,25-dihydroxy-vitaminD (calcitriol).  Both D3 and 25(OH)D are […] Read more »